Rates of murder and violent crime have fallen more rapidly in the UK in the past decade than anywhere else in Western Europe, researchers say. The UK Peace Index, from the Institute for Economics and Peace, found UK homicides per 100,000 people had fallen from 1.99 in 2003, to one in 2012.
The UK was more peaceful overall, it said, with the reasons for it varied. The index found Broadland, Norfolk, to be the most peaceful local council area but Lewisham, London, to be the least. The research comes as a separate study by Cardiff University suggests the number of people treated in hospital in England and Wales after violent incidents fell by 14% in 2012. Some 267,291 people required care – 40,706 fewer than in 2011 – according to a sample of 54 hospital units, its report said.
For its inaugural index, the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), which defined peace as “the absence of violence or fear of violence”, used Home Office data on crime, such as public disorder offences and weapons crime, and police officer numbers.
It found the violent crime rate in the UK was down by about one quarter – from 1,255 per 100,000 people in 2003, to 933 in 2012. Gang violence These reductions came despite a 6% drop in the number of police offers per 100,000 people, it said. In Broadland, which has a population of about 125,000 people, only eight violent crimes were recorded for 2012. Its average overall crime rate for the decade was 323 per 100,000 people – about a third of the national average.
The five most peaceful local authority areas, which also included Three Rivers, in Hertfordshire, South Cambridgeshire, East Dorset and Maldon, in Essex, recorded a combined total of 24 homicides over the decade.
Lewisham, meanwhile, had a homicide rate of 2.5 in 2012 – two-and-a-half times the national average. The year 2011 was the borough’s worst in the decade for the actual number of homicides – defined by researchers as murder, manslaughter and infanticide – with 11. All five of the least peaceful local authority areas were London boroughs – the others being Lambeth, Hackney, Newham and Tower Hamlets.
BBC home editor Mark Easton said that while Lewisham, an area scarred by gang violence, was found to be the least peaceful area, overall the capital was markedly more peaceful than it was 10 years ago, with some of the biggest drops in some types of violent crime. The capital’s rate of homicides was far lower than in New York, Amsterdam, Brussels and Prague, he added. Of the UK’s “urban areas”, the index found Glasgow, with a murder rate of double the national average, to be the least peaceful and Cardiff, with 60% less violent crime than Glasgow, the most peaceful. Sheffield, Nottingham and Leeds came 2nd, 3rd and 4th respectively behind Cardiff in the urban areas peacefulness ranking.
The IEP’s report said that 80% of the 343 local authority areas it had evaluated had seen at least a 10% improvement in their peace over the past decade. “This is the fastest decline in violence of any country in Europe,” it said. “Cross-checking Home Office and Eurostat data against a number of metrics, such as hospital admissions, the UKPI shows that this dramatic fall is not a blip in police reporting – the UK really is becoming more peaceful. “Reasons for this fall in violence are varied, however one of the more likely reasons, often overlooked, is the substantial improvement in police practices particularly related to the adoption of advanced technologies.
"Other factors which have had an impact in reducing violence include an aging population, decreasing alcohol consumption and, finally, rising real wages, supported by the introduction of the minimum wage.” Other findings include Extreme poverty is the factor most closely associated with violence.
The number of police officers had no correlation to levels of peace Fear of crime is greater than the reality: 25% of Britons think they will be a victim of crime, but only 4% will experience crime The UK homicide rate is now roughly equivalent to the Western European average and at its lowest level since 1978 But UK violent crime rate is significantly higher than the European average The research follows the IEP’s US Peace Index published last year.
IEP chairman Steve Killelea said the increased level of peace in the UK “cannot be narrowed down to any single factor”. But he added: “The findings of the UK Peace Index show that poverty and economic opportunity are significantly associated with peace, as supported by other international studies, including the US Peace Index. “This suggests greater emphasis needs to be placed on programmes that tackle poverty and related issues, such as access to education and economic opportunity.”
This News article is from BBC World News and first appeared on the BBC News website at 03:39am, on the 24th of April 2013. BBC.Related Articles
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Vision of Humanity is an initiative of the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP). IEP have offices in New York and Sydney. For more specific inquiries related to the peace indexes and research, please contact IEP directly.